1922 - 25 December 1991
Europe, Central Asia and Northern Asia
into 15 independent
The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was formed on
30 December 1922 from the merger of the four Soviet Republics
of Byelorussia, Russia, Transcaucasia
The USSR then consisted of two Soviet Socialist Republics
and two Soviet Federative Socialist Republics (SFSRs): the Byelorussian
SSR, the Russian SFSR, the Transcaucasian SFSR and the Ukrainian SSR.
On 13th May 1925, the Turkmen SSR and the Uzbek SSR were
created from parts of the Russian SFSR.
On 5th December 1929, the Tajik SSR was created from part
of the Uzbek SSR.
On 5th December 1936, the Kazakh SSR and the Kyrgyz SSR
created from parts of the Russian SFSR, and the Transcaucasian SFSR was
dissolved to form
the Armenian SSR, the Azerbaijan SSR and the Georgian SSR.
On 31st March 1940, the Karelo-Finnish SSR was created from
part of the Russian SFSR plus the Finnish Democratic Republic - the
part of Finland that the USSR occupied
following the Winter War of 1939-1940.
On 15th June 1940, the USSR occupied the independent
country of Lithuania. Two days later it occupied the
independent countries of Estonia and Latvia.
On 2nd August 1940, the Moldavian SSR was created from part
the Ukranian SSR. This was land that had previously been
annexed from Romania.
On 3rd, 5th and 6th August 1940, the Lithuanian SSR, the
Latvian SSR and the Estonian SSR were created from the occupied
countries of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia.
In 1941, Nazi Germany gained control of
Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania until 1944 when the USSR
In October 1944, the USSR annexed the independent country
of Tannu Tuva,
incorporating it within the Russian SFSR.
On 16th July 1956, the Karelo-Finnish SSR was abolished,
and the land incorporated in the Russian SFSR.
On 11th March 1990, 20th August 1991 and 21st August
1991, the Lithuanian SSR, the Estonian SSR and the Latvian SSR declared
their independence from the USSR.
On 6th September 1991, the USSR recognised the independence
of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.
On 8th December 1991, the leaders of the Byelorussian SSR,
Russian SFSR and the Ukrainian SSR signed the Belavezha Accords, which
declared the USSR dissolved and replaced with the Commonwealth of
Independent States (CIS).
On 21st December 1991, 11 of the 12 remaining Soviet
(excluding the Georgian SSR) ratified this decision by
Alma-Ata Protocol, effectively ending the USSR.
On 25th December 1991, the Union of Soviet Socialist
Republics was officially dissolved.
The former USSR now consists of the independent
nations of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus (formerly Byelorussia),
Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz
Republic (unofficially known as Kyrgyzstan), Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova
(formerly Moldavia), the
Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan.
all of the above countries except Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania make up
the Commonwealth of Independent States, which is
an alliance of countries, rather than a country in its own right.
(Turkmenistan only has associate membership.)