November 1920 - 16 March 1924
The city of Fiume (also known as Rijeka in Croatian) was
part of Hungary from the mid 19th century.
Following the defeat of Austria-Hungary
in World War I, there was
a dispute between the Kingdom
of Serbs, Croats & Slovenes and Italy
as to who should control Fiume/Rijeka. In October 1918, the
was first controlled by the Croats, and then this changed to Italian
control a few days later.
In November 1918 British, French and American troops then
took over the city. Its official status was indeterminate.
On 12th September 1919, the Italian nationalist poet
D'Annunzio occupied the city with his fascist followers.
wanted Italy to officially annex Fiume, but Italy refused and instead
blockaded the city.
On 8th September 1920, D'Annunzio declared the
independent as the Italian Regency of Carnaro. This was never
recognised by the international community.
On 12th November 1920, the Treaty of Rapallo was signed
between Italy and the Kingdom
Croats & Slovenes. This granted
independence to Fiume. D'Anunzio ignored this and declared
Italy. He surrendered the city in December 1920.
On 3rd March 1922, a coup took place by Italian nationalist
fascists. Although Fiume was technically still independent,
reality this was not the case.
On 27th January 1924, the Treaty of Rome was signed which
Fiume to Italy. Italy officially took control on 16th March
After World War II, Fiume became part of Yugoslavia and
officially renamed Rijeka. Now it is part of the independent
state of Croatia.