October 1918 - 31
between Czech Republic, Slovakia and part of Ukraine
Before the First World War, the Czech and Slovak lands
were part of Austria-Hungary.
The Czech lands were Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia (part of
Austria), and the Slovak lands were Slovakia and Subcarpathian Ruthenia
(part of Hungary).
The independence of Czechoslovakia was declared by the
Czechs on 28th October 1918. On 30th October, the Slovaks
officially joined the state.
Czechoslovakia was formally recognised on 10th September
1919 with the signing of the Treaty of Saint-Germain.
Subcarpathian Ruthenia did not become part of
Czechoslovakia until the signing of the Treaty of Trianon on June 4th
Parts of Czechoslovakia (Sudetenland) were annexed by
Germany in 1938. Later, other parts were ceded to Hungary and
On 14th March 1939, the remaining parts of Slovakia
nominal independence, albeit as a German puppet state.
On 15th March 1939, the remaining Czech lands were annexed
by Germany, and Subcarpathian Ruthenia became independent as Carpatho-Ukraine.
On 24th September 1944, the Soviet
army began to liberate
Czechoslovakia. It achieved full independence again in April
Communists took power in 1948. This regime ended
with the peaceful Velvet Revolution of 1989.
On 25th November 1992, the parliament voted to divide the
into two independent nations, Czech Republic and Slovakia.
split took place on 1st January 1993 and is known as the Velvet Divorce.