1867 - 16 November 1918
and Eastern Europe
Divided into 7 independent nations, and parts of 5 others
In February 1867 the Austrian Empire was transformed into
Austria-Hungary through a process known as Ausgleich. This
more power to Hungary than it had had as part of the Austrian Empire.
Austria-Hungary was a dual monarchy comprising two
countries with equal status: Cisleithania (the Austrian part -
officially known as The Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial
Council) and Transleithania (the Hungarian part - officially known as
The Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen).
With the signing of the Treaty of Berlin on 13th July 1878,
the Ottoman Empire
ceded the province of Bosnia-Herzegovina
to Austria-Hungary. It was officially
incorporated on 3rd October 1908 and placed under joint Austrian and
Hungarian administration. This was a controversial move that
increased tensions throughout Europe.
On 28th June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria was
assassinated in Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina. Events
Austria-Hungary to declare war on Serbia, precipitating World War I in
which Austria-Hungary was ultimately defeated.
independence from Austria-Hungary on 28th October 1918. (This
comprised the Austrian crownlands of Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia,
and the Hungarian areas of Slovakia and Subcarpathian Ruthenia).
On 29th October 1918, the State of Slovenes, Croats
and Serbs declared independence from Austria-Hungary.
(This comprised Bosnia-Herzegovina, the Austrian crownlands
of Carniola, Dalmatia and part of Styria, and the Hungarian
lands of Croatia-Slavonia and
Vojvodina.) (See also Fiume.)
On 12th and 16th November 1918 respectively, the remaining
parts of Austria and Hungary declared separate republics, thereby
officially dissolving Austria-Hungary.
On 4th June 1920, the Treaty of Trianon was signed
which fixed the borders of Hungary. This recognised
the loss of Hungarian territory as described above and the ceding
of most of Burgenland to Austria. Also, land (including
Transylvania) was ceded to Romania.
Now, the land occupied by Austria-Hungary is divided
independent nations of Austria, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, the Czech
Republic, Hungary, Slovakia, Slovenia, and parts of Italy, Poland,
Romania, Serbia and Ukraine.